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Analgesic: Defination, Uses, Warnings & Precautions


Analgesic is a broad term used to refer many classes of drugs used in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions.

Sub categories of analgesic

  1. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,
  2. antidepressants,
  3. antiepileptics,
  4. local anesthetics,
  5. opioids.

Classification of analgesic

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) – These drugs are used for mild-to-moderate pain, pain associated with inflammation, and temporary reduction of fever.

Example of NSAIDs – Paracetamol, Eoticoxib, Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Diclofenac, Mefenamic Acid.

Local anesthetics – Most commonly used analgesic to relieve the pain, Example includes Benzocain, Lidocain, Menthol, Capsascin.

Opioid agents – Opioids block calcium channels on nociceptive afferent nerves, thus inhibiting pain sensation by acting on CNS. example includes – Morphine, Tramadol, Oxycodone, Codeine, Hydrocodone, Fentaryl.

Antiepileptic drugs – Several anti-epileptic drugs are also noted for their analgesic properties by acting of reducing the neurotransmitter release or neuronal activation.

Example – Gabapentin, Pregabalin, Oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine.

Antidepressant medications – Selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), especially duloxetine, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), especially amitriptyline, have been shown to be effective in a variety of neuropathic pain disorders.

Side effects of analgesic

Following is the most common side effect of oral analgesic drugs:

  • Nausea,
  • Anorexia,
  • Dyspepsia,
  • Abdominal pain,
  • Ulcers,
  • Gastrointestinal hemorrhage,
  • Perforation,
  • Constipation,
  • Diarrhea,

However, analgesic drugs can also cause some serious adverse effects including:

  • Hypertension
  • Asthma
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Myocardial infarction,
  • Stroke,
  • Thromboembolic events 

Immediately contact nearby hospital or doctor if you get any of these severe side effects.

Precaution of analgesic

Avoid consumption of analgesic if you are having an allergic history with them.

Avoid taking analgesic for more than 10 days unless it is recommended by the doctors.

Talk to your doctor before consuming any analgesic in pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Patients with kidney and liver disease should consult doctor before consuming it.

Dizziness is one of the most common side effect of analgesic, that’s why it is not advised to drive after taking analgesic drug.

Do not consume alcohol with any analgesic, as it will make you more dizzy.

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