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Disease Information

Analgesic: Defination, Uses, Warnings & Precautions

Analgesic is a broad term used to refer many classes of drugs used in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions.

analgesic

Analgesic is a broad term used to refer many classes of drugs used in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions.

Sub categories of analgesic

  1. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,
  2. antidepressants,
  3. antiepileptics,
  4. local anesthetics,
  5. opioids.

Classification of analgesic

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) – These drugs are used for mild-to-moderate pain, pain associated with inflammation, and temporary reduction of fever.

Example of NSAIDs – Paracetamol, Eoticoxib, Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Diclofenac, Mefenamic Acid.

Local anesthetics – Most commonly used analgesic to relieve the pain, Example includes Benzocain, Lidocain, Menthol, Capsascin.

Opioid agents – Opioids block calcium channels on nociceptive afferent nerves, thus inhibiting pain sensation by acting on CNS. example includes – Morphine, Tramadol, Oxycodone, Codeine, Hydrocodone, Fentaryl.

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Antiepileptic drugs – Several anti-epileptic drugs are also noted for their analgesic properties by acting of reducing the neurotransmitter release or neuronal activation.

Example – Gabapentin, Pregabalin, Oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine.

Antidepressant medications – Selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), especially duloxetine, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), especially amitriptyline, have been shown to be effective in a variety of neuropathic pain disorders.

Side effects of analgesic

Following is the most common side effect of oral analgesic drugs:

  • Nausea,
  • Anorexia,
  • Dyspepsia,
  • Abdominal pain,
  • Ulcers,
  • Gastrointestinal hemorrhage,
  • Perforation,
  • Constipation,
  • Diarrhea,

However, analgesic drugs can also cause some serious adverse effects including:

  • Hypertension
  • Asthma
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Myocardial infarction,
  • Stroke,
  • Thromboembolic events 

Immediately contact nearby hospital or doctor if you get any of these severe side effects.

Precaution of analgesic

Avoid consumption of analgesic if you are having an allergic history with them.

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Avoid taking analgesic for more than 10 days unless it is recommended by the doctors.

Talk to your doctor before consuming any analgesic in pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Patients with kidney and liver disease should consult doctor before consuming it.

Dizziness is one of the most common side effect of analgesic, that’s why it is not advised to drive after taking analgesic drug.

Do not consume alcohol with any analgesic, as it will make you more dizzy.

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Disease Information

Loss of Appetite: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Loss of Appetite is one of the most common problems faced by many peoples in united state. Which increases the chances of weight loss and nutritional deficiencies. Also contribute to associated poor healthcare outcomes, including increased mortality.

loss of appetite

Loss of Appetite is one of the most common problems faced by many peoples in united state. Which increases the chances of weight loss and nutritional deficiencies. Also contribute to associated poor healthcare outcomes, including increased mortality.

What causes loss of appetite?

There are numerous conditions which can cause loss of appetite. The best way to get your hunger back is by addressing the issue that causing loss of appetite.

Medications

Some medications can cause you loss of appetite as a side effect. following is the list:

  • Antibiotics
  • Narcotic Analgesics
  • Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs
  • Anti hypertensive drugs

Health Conditions

Following is the list of health conditions which can cause loss of appetite.

  • Dementia
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hepatitis
  • Heart failure
  • Liver disease

Other disorders

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Surgical procedure
  • Anorexia Nervosa

How to treat loss of appetite?

Your doctor may recommend you some appetite stimulants like.

Megestrol 

Megestrol is an hormone which is used in the cancer and hiv patients to stimulate the appetite.

In Fact, According to study Megestrol is one of the more potent appetite stimulants of currently used drugs.

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Dronabinol 

Dronabiol is asynthetic tetrahydrocannabinol and a psychoactive substance found in cannabis. can be prescribed by the doctors to stimulate the appetite.

Oxandrolone 

Oxandrolone is a synthetic testosterone, which can increase your weight like an anabolic steroid. It should be used with caution to avoid excessive weight gain.

Lifestyle changes suggested to increase appetite

  • Regular physical exercise
  • Get enough sleep
  • Get early to bed and wake up in the morning
  • Quit smoking
  • Eat small meals frequently
  • Get social, meet new people
  • Live in fresh environment

Home remedies for loss of appetite

1.Fennel Tea

Ancient remedies shows us the use of Fennel as an appetite stimulant. they promote digestion of food and makes your stomach empty more faster, Which leads to increase in appetite.

To make fennel tea:

Add a teaspoonful of fennel seeds to around 2 cups of water, you can add some coriander seeds also for more efficiency.

Boil the mixture for 5-10 minutes, Strain the mixture and drink at least once a day to see the result.

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2.Carom Seeds (Ajwain)

Carrom seeds are another indian spice having many benefits. it works by promoting your digestion and making you feel to eat more.

Add some carrom seeds to boiling water and drink it twice a day to see the effect.

They also have anti-flatulent and antacid effect to maintain your gut health.

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Disease Information

Stomach Ulcer: Symptoms, Causes,Treatment & Home Remedies

Stomach ulcers are sores in the lining of the stomach mucosa. They can be as big as 5 mm deeper in size. Increased acid secretion and Bacterial infection are the most common cause of Stomach ulcer.

stomach ulcer

Stomach ulcers are sores in the lining of the stomach mucosa. They can be as big as 5 mm deeper in size. Increased acid secretion and Bacterial infection are the most common cause of Stomach ulcer.

According to this study, About 80 to 90% of gastric ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori infection and/or NSAID use.

Symptoms of Stomach Ulcer

There can be many symptoms seen in the stomach ulcers, but their severity depends on the severity of ulcers.

Burning in the middle of the stomach is the most common symptom that occurs if you have a stomach ulcer. Other symptoms include:

Always talk to your doctor to confirm whether you have ulcers or not. Diagnosis of stomach ulcer is important to take appropriate treatment.

Causes of Stomach Ulcer

Stomach ulcers occur when excess of acid secreted in the stomach, Which further causes sores in the stomach lining.

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Most common causes of stomach ulcer:

When to talk to doctor

Always visit or talk to your doctor if you see any symptoms of stomach ulcers.

It is advised to seek emergency help if you get any of the following symptoms:

  • Blood in vomit
  • Dark or blood colored stools
  • severe pain in the abdomen
  • Any other symptom which you think occuring because of internal bleeding

Treatment of Stomach Ulcer

Usually treatment is chosen depending on the cause of ulcers. It will usually take one to two months to completely heal stomach ulcers.

To counter the side effect of NSAID, Usually Proton Pump Inhibitors are prescribed to control the production of acid in the stomach.

Proton Pump Inhibitors – Omeprazole, Esomeprazole, Rabeprazole, Pantaprazole

In case of bacterial infection, certain antibiotics are used to suppress the growth of bacteria in the stomach.

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Antibiotics – Metronidazole, Amoxicillin, Clarithromycin, Tetracycline, Tinidazole

Home remedies for Stomach Ulcer

1.Probiotic Foods

Probiotics are also known as healthy gut bacteria, they help our body to maintain the health of our stomach.

They might not be able to kill H.Pylori, but they can suppress the growth of bacteria and promote the process of healing.

Sources of probiotic:

  • Yogurt
  • Fermented foods
  • Supplements
  • Kimchi
  • Sauerkraut
  • Kombucha

2.Honey

Honey is one of the most popular remedy used in stomach ulcers. There are also many other health benefits of taking honey regularly.

Honey is proven to have antimicrobial effect and it also decreases the acid secretion in the stomach.

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People with stomach ulcers should consume honey regularly to speed up the healing of ulcer sores.

3.Aloe Vera

Aloe Vera is plant based gel having many health benefits including healing of stomach ulcers.

There are animal studies showing positive effects on healing of ulcers.

You can drink aloe vera juice or add it to your favorite drinks.

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Disease Information

Constipation: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment & Home Remedies

Constipation is a gastric disorder characterized by infrequent stools, difficult stool passage with pain and stiffness.

constipation

Constipation is a gastric disorder characterized by infrequent stools, difficult stool passage with pain and stiffness. Constipation is the most common condition which affects around 1% to 80% population worldwide.

Symptoms of constipation

Symptoms of constipation may vary from person to person, But following is the list of common symptoms which are noted in constipation.

  • Having difficulty in passing the stools,
  • Stomach pain,
  • Pain while passing the stools,
  • Fewer than three bowel movements a week,
  • Stomach gas and bloating,
  • Feeling of not getting completely emptied your bowels after a movement.
  • Need to put pressure on stomach to pass the stools.

Causes of symptoms

There are many causes of constipation, based on lifestyle changes, use of medications and gastric disorder.

  • Lack of fiber consumption,
  • Not drinking enough water,
  • Anxiety and Stress,
  • Eating large amounts of milk or cheese.
  • Regular consumption of alcohol,
  • Resisting the urge to have a bowel movement.
  • In pregnancy

Medications which causes constipation

All those drugs which relaxes the muscles in the body, also relaxes muscle of the gut which causes the constipation.

Following is the list of medication is known to cause constipation.

Disorder which causes constipation

  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Diverticular Disease
  • Intestinal Obstruction
  • Diabetes
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Parkinson’s Disease

Treatment of constipation

Prescription drugs are available to get relief from constipation. Following is the list of medications prescribed by the doctor.

  • Lubiprostone – It acts locally in the intestine by softening the stool, increases intestinal transit, and improves symptoms of constipation.
  • Plecanatide – This drug works by drawing water into the gastrointestinal tract, thereby softening stool and encouraging its natural passage.
  • Lactulose – It is a laxative drug which acts by breaking down bacteria in the colon and drawing for water in the colon to softening the stools.
  • Linaclotide

Home remedies for constipation

Ancient home remedies are said to be a more conventional treatment in the constipation.

1.Eat more fiber

Fiber is most commonly used mineral to treat the constipation, Eat high fiber vegetables and fruits like beans, broccoli, berries, avocado, popcorns, apples, dried fruits, whole grains, potatoes, nuts.

According to this study, 77% of people with constipation benefited from increased consumption with fiber.

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This study suggests psyllium was 3.4 times more effective than insoluble wheat bran for increasing stool output.

2.Drink coffee

Caffeine said to stimulate the muscles in the stomach, which triggers the bowel movements.

Coffee also contains some amounts of soluble fibers which further helps in softening the stools and also improve the gut bacteria.

People with frequent constipation should daily consume a drink of coffee to get long time relief from the frequent constipation.

3.Try Herbal Laxative

Since ancient time Senna is an herbal laxative which is used in the management of constipation.

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Senna mainly contains glycosides which stimulate the nerves in the gut and help speed up bowel movements.

Generally senna is not recommended during the pregnancy and in children’s. Consult a doctor for alternative medicine.

When to seek doctor’s help

Contact your nearby doctor if:

  • You are having constipation for more than 10 days,
  • You are having problem of frequent constipation,
  • You are having serious stomach pain,
  • You have serious trouble in passing stools.

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